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劉鋒東南亞提升競爭力應放眼長遠
2020-01-06 22:44   来源:  www.match-bo.com   评论:0 点击:

劉鋒東南亞提升競爭力應放眼長遠因勞動力成本和外部經濟環境等因素影響,一些跨國企業最近兩年開始將部分勞

因勞動力成本和外部經濟環境等因素影響,一些跨國企業最近兩年開始將部分勞動密集型產業從中國向東南亞轉移。東南亞相關國家顯然也在努力承接這些轉移。有外媒近日報道,原計劃今年1月上調最低工資的東南亞各國大部分都要收緊最低工資上調幅度。究其原因,主要是為突出勞動力成本優勢。平心而論,東南亞各國提升產業競爭力的訴求可以理解,但通過壓低工資漲幅來實現這一目的,顯然是用錯了勁,甚至顯得力不從心。

Due to factors such as labor cost and external economic environment, some multinational enterprises began to transfer some labor-intensive industries from China to Southeast Asia in the last two years. It is clear that countries in Southeast Asia are also trying to take on these transfers. Foreign media recently reported that most Southeast Asian countries that had planned to raise the minimum wage in January would have to tighten the minimum wage increase. The main reason is to highlight the advantages of labor costs. To be sure, south-east asia's demands for greater industrial competitiveness are understandable, but to do so by driving down wage rises are clearly wrong and even out of reach.

現在東南亞國家在勞動力成本和稅負成本方面較之中國確實有了一定優勢。調查顯示,2018年中國勞動力成本為807美元/月,已高于越南、馬來西亞和緬甸等東南亞國家。另外中國企業稅負比重也相對較高,企業稅費負擔與利潤比達60%以上,東南亞主要國家的這一數據明顯低于中國。而且,外資企業在東南亞國家投資一般都有2年至15年不等的免稅期,這對勞動力密集型企業吸引力很大。

Now Southeast Asian countries do have some advantages over China in terms of labor and tax costs. China's labor cost is $807\/month in 2018, which is already higher than Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, Malaysia and Myanmar, according to the survey. In addition, the proportion of tax burden of Chinese enterprises is relatively high, and the tax burden and profit ratio of enterprises are more than 60%, and the data of the major countries in Southeast Asia are significantly lower than that of China. Moreover, foreign companies typically invest in Southeast Asian countries for periods ranging from two to 15 years, which is attractive to labor-intensive companies.

但較之這些優勢,對產業競爭力更重要的因素在于基礎設施水平、勞動力素質和工作效率、制度軟環境等,而東南亞不少國家在這些方面短板突出。比如在鐵路、公路、水運、電力、飲水安全、寬帶普及率等方面,中國有著明顯好于東南亞國家的優勢,用電、用水和用地等方面成本,也低于大部分東南亞國家。

But over these advantages, the more important factors for industrial competitiveness are infrastructure level, labor quality and work efficiency, system soft environment and so on, and many countries in Southeast Asia are short board in these aspects. For example, in railway, road, water transport, electricity, drinking water security, broadband penetration, China has a significantly better advantage than Southeast Asian countries, electricity, water and land use costs, but also lower than most Southeast Asian countries.

盡管東南亞國家青年勞動力人口總體優于中國,比如越南人口平均年齡只有29歲,70%人口都在35歲以下,吸引外資的人口結構優勢明顯,而且個別國家在特色職業教育和技術工人獲得上做得不錯,但總體的勞動力受教育程度、技術熟練程度以及工作時長等大都不及中國。特別是中國在行政部門效率、解決糾紛、法治環境等方面優勢明顯,一定程度上彌補了勞動力成本和稅負方面的劣勢。

Although the youth labor force population of Southeast Asian countries is generally better than that of China, for example, Vietnam's average population is only 29 years old,70% of the population is under 35 years old, the population structure advantage of attracting foreign capital is obvious, and individual countries have done well in the specialty vocational education and technical workers, but the overall labor force is less educated, skilled and working hours than China. In particular, China has obvious advantages in administrative efficiency, dispute resolution, legal environment and so on, which to some extent makes up for the disadvantages of labor cost and tax burden.

綜合考慮這些因素,東南亞國家以人為壓制工資增幅的方式控制勞動力成本、維持產業競爭力,顯然是情急之下的短線操作。吸引外資發展經濟,最終目的是改善民生,提高本國民眾收入和生活水平,而現在以犧牲工人收入增長來吸引外資,這有點本末倒置了。

Taking these factors into account, south-east asian countries artificially suppress wage growth to control labor costs and maintain industrial competitiveness, is clearly a short-term operation in a hurry. Attracting foreign capital to develop the economy, the ultimate goal is to improve people's livelihood, improve the income and living standards of their own people, and now to attract foreign capital at the expense of workers'income growth, this is a bit of the cart before the horse.

一個無法逆轉的現實是,隨著更多外資企業進駐東南亞,相關國家工資水平必將水漲船高,它們的勞動力紅利早晚也會耗盡。因此,與其在調控工資增幅上搞短線操作,東南亞國家似乎更應把精力放在如何優化產業發展環境和制度建設上,那樣才是提升產業競爭力的長久之道。(作者是海南師范大學海上絲綢之路研究院研究員)

An irreversible reality is that as more foreign companies move into south-east asia, wages in the countries concerned are bound to rise and their labour dividends will run out sooner or later. Therefore, instead of short-term regulation of wage growth, southeast asian countries seem to focus more on how to optimize the industrial development environment and institutional construction, that is the long-term way to enhance industrial competitiveness. (The author is a researcher at the Maritime Silk Road Research Institute, Hainan Normal University)


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